2017 twenty four merry days of Perl Feed

Constantly Merry

Const::Fast - 2017-12-08

One of the marks of a good code is that you're aware of what can change and what will not.

For example some things are destined to change:


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my $mince_pies_eaten = 0;
$mince_pies_eaten++; # yum!
$mince_pies_eaten++; # yum! yum!

 

And some things are not:


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my $WISE_MEN = 3;
 

It's good practice for your language to prevent you altering constants. Ideally if you accidentally did:


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$WISE_MEN++;
 

You'd want Perl to throw an exception. And you can easily make Perl do that with a little help from a module on the CPAN:


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use Const::Fast;

const my $WISE_MEN => 3;

say "There are $WISE_MEN wise men";

$WISE_MEN++;

 

Results in:

    There are 3 wise men
    Modification of a read-only value attempted at - line 7.

The const keyword preceding the my causes the variable that my refers to to be marked read-only and causes perl to throw a run-time exception if anything tries to alter it.

Other constant techniques that don't work as well

There have been several techniques for constants in Perl that you might have heard of, and it's probably best to understand why we shouldn't use them in modern, well maintained code.

The Inlined Subroutine Trick

If you write a subroutine that returns a simple value:


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sub WISE_MEN() { return 3 }
 

Then that subroutine will be inlined when perl compiles your code. This means that:


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use Lingua::EN::Numbers::Ordinate qw( ordinate );

sub WISE_MEN() { 3 }

for (1..WISE_MEN) {
    say "Getting gift from ".ordinate($_)." wise man";
}

 

Doesn't end up calling WISE_MEN from the Perl statement at all - perl is clever enough to substitute a scalar for 3 directly into the compiled op code removing the subroutine call at all. Let's run it through the compiler/decompiler to see the code equivalent to what perl sees once everything has been compiled:

    shell$ perl -Mfeature=say -MO=Deparse script.pl
    sub WISE_MEN () {
        3;
    }
    use Lingua::EN::Numbers::Ordinate ('ordinate');
    use feature 'say';
    foreach $_ (1 .. 3) {
        say 'Getting gift from ' . &ordinate($_) . ' wise man';
    }

Note the WISE_MEN in the for loop has gone!

This seems ideal, but there are some big problems:

Prototypes

In order that I can write WISE_MEN not WISE_MEN() I need to declare the subroutine with a prototype, i.e. I need to write:


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sub WISE_MEN() { 3 }
 

The () indicates that no arguments are needed and the call to the subroutine can be written without brackets. However, this syntax is incompatible with the new experimental subroutine signatures feature recent versions of perl offer. Once enabled the same syntax would introduce run-time parameter checking and would result in a bare call to WISE_MEN without the trailing brackets causing an exception. Our subroutine instead would have to be written as:


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sub WISE_MEN() :prototype() { 3 }
 

Which is even less readable than before.

Only Simple Things

Consider this misguided attempt to create constants:


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use Lingua::EN::Numbers::Ordinate ('ordinate');

sub MONTH_OF_XMAS() { ordinate(25) }; # 25th
sub DATE_OF_XMAS() { ordinate(12) }; # 12th

print 'On the '.DATE_OF_XMAS.' day of the '.MONTH_OF_XMAS.' month...';

 

The value isn't simple enough and perl won't inline it, meaning that not only does our constant result in a subroutine call each time it's called, but it also that results in a call to ordinate each time.

Using use constant;

The solution to each of these is to use a core module called constant


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use Lingua::EN::Numbers::Ordinate ('ordinate');

use constant MONTH_OF_XMAS => ordinate(25);
use constant DATE_OF_XMAS => ordinate(12);

print 'On the '.DATE_OF_XMAS.' day of the '.MONTH_OF_XMAS.' month...';

 

This declaration creates a simple subroutine that returns whatever value you passed to the call to use constant. Running this through the parser/deparser shows us that things have been helpfully simplified:

    shell$ perl -MO=Deparse script.pl
    use Lingua::EN::Numbers::Ordinate ('ordinate');
    use constant ('MONTH_OF_XMAS', &ordinate(25));
    use constant ('DATE_OF_XMAS', &ordinate(12));
    print 'On the 12th day of the 25th month...';

However, there's a couple of problems with this technique

No interpolation

Ideally instead of writing:


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print 'On the '.DATE_OF_XMAS.' day of the '.MONTH_OF_XMAS.' month...';
 

We'd love it if we could just write:


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print "On the $DATE_OF_XMAS day of the $MONTH_OF_XMAS month...';
 

Doesn't Play Nice With Hash Keys

Worse, these constants can't be used in situations where Perl would normally automatically quote values for you.

Consider this code:


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use constant WISE1 => 'Melchior';
use constant WISE2 => 'Caspar';
use constant WISE3 => 'Balthazar'

my %gifts = (
    WISE1 => 'Gold',
    WISE2 => 'Frankenstein',
    WISE3 => 'Muwhur?',
);

print $gifts{Balthazar}; # doesn't work as we'd expect

 

The fat comma (aka the =>) causes WISE1 to be the literal string WISE1 not Melchior as we'd expected. We need to write this as:


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my %gifts = (
    WISE1() => 'Gold',
    WISE2() => 'Frankenstein',
    WISE3() => 'Muwhur?',
);

 

The same is true for the hash keys.


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# WRONG
my $ag = $gifts{WISE1};

# RIGHT
my $shelly = $gifts{WISE2()};

 

Const::Fast is...fast.

Const::Fast relies on perl's in-build internal read-only support to make normal variables read-only. This means a variable that Const::Fast has marked as a constant can still be used just like any other variable - interpolated into strings, used as hash keys - except it cannot be altered because it has the read-only flag set.

This read-only functionality isn't provided by Const::Fast - it's just using the same mechanism perl uses internally to stop you altering literals in your source code. For example consider what happens if you write a subroutine that alters its arguments but instead of passing in a variable you pass in a literal string:


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sub shorten {
    $_[0] =~ s/Christmas/Xmas/;
}

# this works fine
my $string = 'Merry Christmas';
shorten($string);

# this gives the error
# Modification of a read-only value attempted at - line 4.
shorten('Merry Christmas');

 

Internally perl uses the same sort of representation for the variable $string and the literal string we're passing to shorten, but the latter has a flag set on it to mark it as read only. Const::Fast enables the same flag on variables that you create with const meaning this acts in the same way:


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# this also gives the error
# Modification of a read-only value attempted at - line 4.
const my $string => 'Merry Christmas';
shorten($string);

 

This means that constants defined by Const::Fast have no run-time penalty and are as fast as hard-coding the value in all the places you use the constant. Awesome!

Gravatar Image This article contributed by: Mark Fowler <mark@twoshortplanks.com>